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What happened on the planes on 9/11? Via

What Happened on the Planes on September 11, 2001? The 9/11 Cell Phone Calls. The 9/11 Commission “Script” Was Fabricated

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This article was first published on August 10, 2004 under the title More Holes in the Official Story: The 9/11 Cell Phone Calls

“We Have Some Planes”

The 9/11 Commission’s Report provides an almost visual description of the Arab hijackers. It depicts in minute detail events occurring inside the cabin of the four hijacked planes.

In the absence of surviving passengers, this “corroborating evidence”, was based on passengers’ cell and air phone conversations with their loved ones. According to the Report, the cockpit voice recorder (CVR) was only recovered in the case of one of the flights (UAL 93).

Focusing on the personal drama of the passengers, the Commission has built much of its narrative around the phone conversations. The Arabs are portrayed with their knives and box cutters, scheming in the name of Allah, to bring down the planes and turn them “into large guided missiles” (Report, Chapter 1).

The Technology of Wireless Transmission

The Report conveys the impression that cell phone ground-to-air communication from high altitude was of reasonably good quality, and that there was no major impediment or obstruction in wireless transmission.

Some of the conversations were with onboard air phones, which contrary to the cell phones provide for good quality transmission. The report does not draw a clear demarcation between the two types of calls.

More significantly, what this carefully drafted script fails to mention is that, given the prevailing technology in September 2001, it was extremely difficult, if not impossible, to place a wireless cell call from an aircraft traveling at high speed above 8000 feet:

“Wireless communications networks weren’t designed for ground-to-air communication. Cellular experts privately admit that they’re surprised the calls were able to be placed from the hijacked planes, and that they lasted as long as they did. They speculate that the only reason that the calls went through in the first place is that the aircraft were flying so close to the ground (See this)

Expert opinion within the wireless telecom industry casts serious doubt on “the findings” of the 9/11 Commission. According to Alexa Graf, a spokesman of AT&T, commenting in the immediate wake of the 9/11 attacks:

“it was almost a fluke that the [9/11] calls reached their destinations… From high altitudes, the call quality is not very good, and most callers will experience drops. Although calls are not reliable, callers can pick up and hold calls for a little while below a certain altitude” (See this)

New Wireless Technology

While serious doubts regarding the cell calls were expressed in the immediate aftermath of 9/11, a new landmark in the wireless telecom industry has further contributed to upsetting the Commission’s credibility. Within days of the release of the 9/11 Commission Report in July, American Airlines and Qualcomm, proudly announced the development of a new wireless technology –which will at some future date allow airline passengers using their cell phones to contact family and friends from a commercial aircraft (no doubt at a special rate aerial roaming charge) (see this)

“Travelers could be talking on their personal cellphones as early as 2006. Earlier this month [July 2004], American Airlines conducted a trial run on a modified aircraft that permitted cell phone calls.” (WP, July 27, 2004)

Aviation Week (07/20/04) described this new technology in an authoritative report published in July 2004:

“Qualcomm and American Airlines are exploring [July 2004] ways for passengers to use commercial cell phones inflight for air-to-ground communication. In a recent 2-hr. proof-of-concept flight, representatives from government and the media used commercial Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) third-generation cell phones to place and receive calls and text messages from friends on the ground.

For the test flight from Dallas-Fort Worth, the aircraft was equipped with an antenna in the front and rear of the cabin to transmit cell phone calls to a small in-cabin CDMA cellular base station. This “pico cell” transmitted cell phone calls from the aircraft via a Globalstar satellite to the worldwide terrestrial phone network”

Needless to say, neither the service, nor the “third generation” hardware, nor the “Picco cell” CDMA base station inside the cabin (which so to speak mimics a cell phone communication tower inside the plane) were available on the morning of September 11, 2001.

The 911 Commission points to the clarity and detail of these telephone conversations.

In substance, the Aviation Week report creates yet another embarrassing hitch in the official story.

The untimely July American Airlines / Qualcomm announcement acted as a cold shower. Barely acknowledged in press reports, it confirms that the Bush administration had embroidered the cell phone narrative (similar to what they did with WMDs) and that the 9/11 Commission’s account was either flawed or grossly exaggerated.

Altitude and Cellphone Transmission

According to industry experts, the crucial link in wireless cell phone transmission from an aircraft is altitude. Beyond a certain altitude which is usually reached within a few minutes after takeoff, cell phone calls are no longer possible.

In other words, given the wireless technology available on September 11 2001, these cell calls could not have been placed from high altitude.

The only way passengers could have got through to family and friends using their cell phones, is if the planes were flying below 8000 feet. Yet even at low altitude, below 8000 feet, cell phone communication is of poor quality.

The crucial question: at what altitude were the planes traveling, when the calls were placed?

While the information provided by the Commission is scanty, the Report’s timeline does not suggest that the planes were consistently traveling at low altitude. In fact the Report confirms that a fair number of the cell phone calls were placed while the plane was traveling at altitudes above 8000 feet, which is considered as the cutoff altitude for cell phone transmission.

Let us review the timeline of these calls in relation to the information provided by the Report on flight paths and altitude.

Gate C19 at Boston’s Logan International Airport was the boarding gate of United Flight 175 on September 11, 2001. The American flag was added to memorialize the site. (Source: Public Domain)

United Airlines Flight 175

United Airlines Flight 175 departed for Los Angeles at 8:00:

“It pushed back from its gate at 7:58 and departed Logan Airport at 8:14.”

The Report confirms that by 8:33, “it had reached its assigned cruising altitude of 31,000 feet.” According to the Report, it maintained this cruising altitude until 8.51, when it “deviated from its assigned altitude”:

“The first operational evidence that something was abnormal on United 175 came at 8:47, when the aircraft changed beacon codes twice within a minute. At 8:51, the flight deviated from its assigned altitude, and a minute later New York air traffic controllers began repeatedly and unsuccessfully trying to contact it.”

And one minute later at 8.52, Lee Hanson receives a call from his son Peter.

[Flight UAL 175] “At 8:52, in Easton, Connecticut, a man named Lee Hanson received a phone call from his son Peter, a passenger on United 175. His son told him: “I think they’ve taken over the cockpit—An attendant has been stabbed— and someone else up front may have been killed. The plane is making strange moves. Call United Airlines—Tell them it’s Flight 175, Boston to LA.

Press reports confirm that Peter Hanson was using his cell (i.e it was not an air phone). Unless the plane had suddenly nose-dived, the plane was still at high altitude at 8.52. (Moreover, Hanson’s call could have been initiated at least a minute prior to his father Lee Hanson picking up the phone.)

Another call was received at 8.52 (one minute after it deviated from its assigned altitude of 31,000 feet). The Report does not say whether this is an air phone or a cell phone call:

Also at 8:52, a male flight attendant called a United office in San Francisco, reaching Marc Policastro. The flight attendant reported that the flight had been hijacked, both pilots had been killed, a flight attendant had been stabbed, and the hijackers were probably flying the plane. The call lasted about two minutes, after which Policastro and a colleague tried unsuccessfully to contact the flight.

It is not clear whether this was a call to Policastro’s cell phone or to the UAL switchboard.

At 8:58, UAL 175 “took a heading toward New York City.”:

“At 8:59, Flight 175 passenger Brian David Sweeney tried to call his wife, Julie. He left a message on their home answering machine that the plane had been hijacked. He then called his mother, Louise Sweeney, told her the flight had been hijacked, and added that the passengers were thinking about storming the cockpit to take control of the plane away from the hijackers.

At 9:00, Lee Hanson received a second call from his son Peter:

It’s getting bad, Dad—A stewardess was stabbed—They seem to have knives and Mace—They said they have a bomb—It’s getting very bad on the plane—Passengers are throwing up and getting sick—The plane is making jerky movements—I don’t think the pilot is flying the plane—I think we are going down—I think they intend to go to Chicago or someplace and fly into a building—Don’t worry, Dad— If it happens, it’ll be very fast—My God, my God.

The call ended abruptly. Lee Hanson had heard a woman scream just before it cut off. He turned on a television, and in her home so did Louise Sweeney. Both then saw the second aircraft hit the World Trade Center.50 At 9:03:11, United Airlines Flight 175 struck the South Tower of the World Trade Center. All on board, along with an unknown number of people in the tower, were killed instantly.”

American Airlines Flight 77

American Airlines Flight 77 was scheduled to depart from Washington Dulles for Los Angeles at 8:10…

“At 8:46, the flight reached its assigned cruising altitude of 35,000 feet.”

At 8:51, American 77 transmitted its last routine radio communication. The hijacking began between 8:51 and 8:54. As on American 11 and United 175, the hijackers used knives (reported by one passenger) and moved all the passengers (and possibly crew) to the rear of the aircraft (reported by one flight attendant and one passenger). Unlike the earlier flights, the Flight 77 hijackers were reported by a passenger to have box cutters. Finally, a passenger reported that an announcement had been made by the “pilot” that the plane had been hijacked….

Refer to caption

Three frames from the security camera video of Flight 77 hitting the Pentagon. (Source: Public Domain)

On flight AA 77, which allegedly crashed into the Pentagon, the transponder was turned off at 8:56am; the recorded altitude at the time the transponder was turned off is not mentioned. According to the Commission’s Report, cell calls started 16 minutes later, at 9:12am, twenty minutes before it (allegedly) crashed into the Pentagon at 9.32am:

” [at 9.12] Renee May called her mother, Nancy May, in Las Vegas. She said her flight was being hijacked by six individuals who had moved them to the rear of the plane.”

According to the Report, when the autopilot was disengaged at 9:29am, the aircraft was at 7,000 feet and some 38 miles west of the Pentagon. This happened two minutes before the crash.

Most of the calls on Flight 77 were placed between 9.12am and 9.26am, prior to the disengagement of automatic piloting at 9.29am. The plane could indeed have been traveling at either a higher or a lower altitude to that reached at 9.29. Yet, at the same time there is no indication in the Report that the plane had been traveling below the 7000 feet level, which it reached at 9.29am.

At some point between 9:16 and 9:26, Barbara Olson called her husband, Ted Olson, the solicitor general of the United States. [using an airphone]

(Report p 7, see this)

United Airlines Flight 93

UAL flight 93 was the only one of the four planes that, according to the official story, did not crash into a building. Flight 93 passengers, apparently: “alerted through phone calls, attempted to subdue the hijackers. and the hijackers crashed the plane [in Pennsylvania] to prevent the passengers gaining control.” (See this). Another version of events, was that UAL 93 was shot down.

Flight 93 crash site (Source: Public Domain)

According to the Commission’s account:

“the first 46 minutes of Flight 93’s cross-country trip proceeded routinely. Radio communications from the plane were normal. Heading, speed, and altitude ran according to plan. At 9:24, Ballinger’s warning to United 93 was received in the cockpit. Within two minutes, at 9:26, the pilot, Jason Dahl, responded with a note of puzzlement: “Ed, confirm latest mssg plz—Jason.”70 The hijackers attacked at 9:28. While traveling 35,000 feet above eastern Ohio, United 93 suddenly dropped 700 feet.Eleven seconds into the descent, the FAA’s air traffic control center in Cleveland received the first of two radio transmissions from the aircraft….”

At least ten cell calls are reported to have taken place on flight 93.

The Report confirms that passengers started placing calls with cell and air phones shortly after 9.32am, four minutes after the Report’s confirmation of the plane’s attitude of 35,000 feet. In other words, the calls started some 9 minutes before the Cleveland Center lost UAL 93’s transponder signal (9.41) and approximately 30 minutes before the crash in Pennsylvania (10.03)

“At 9:41, Cleveland Center lost United 93’s transponder signal. The controller located it on primary radar, matched its position with visual sightings from other aircraft, and tracked the flight as it turned east, then south.164 “

This suggests that the altitude was known to air traffic control up until the time when the transponder signal was lost by the Cleveland Center. (Radar and visual sightings provided information on its flight path from 9.41 to 10.03.)

Moreover, there was no indication from the Report that the aircraft had swooped down to a lower level of altitude, apart from the 700 feet drop recorded at 9.28. from a cruising altitude of 35,000 feet:

“At 9:32, a hijacker, probably Jarrah, made or attempted to make the following announcement to the passengers of Flight 93:“Ladies and Gentlemen: Here the captain, please sit down keep remaining sitting.

We have a bomb on board. So, sit.” The flight data recorder (also recovered) indicates that Jarrah then instructed the plane’s autopilot to turn the aircraft around and head east. The cockpit voice recorder data indicate that a woman, most likely a flight attendant, was being held captive in the cockpit. She struggled with one of the hijackers who killed or otherwise silenced her.

Shortly thereafter, the passengers and flight crew began a series of calls from GTE airphones and cellular phones. These calls between family, friends, and colleagues took place until the end of the flight and provided those on the ground with firsthand accounts. They enabled the passengers to gain critical information, including the news that two aircraft had slammed into the World Trade Center.77…At least two callers from the flight reported that the hijackers knew that passengers were making calls but did not seem to care.

The hijackers were wearing red bandanas, and they forced the passengers to the back of the aircraft.80 Callers reported that a passenger had been stabbed and that two people were lying on the floor of the cabin, injured or dead—possibly the captain and first officer. One caller reported that a flight attendant had been killed.81 One of the callers from United 93 also reported that he thought the hijackers might possess a gun. But none of the other callers reported the presence of a firearm. One recipient of a call from the aircraft recounted specifically asking her caller whether the hijackers had guns.

The passenger replied that he did not see one. No evidence of firearms or of their identifiable remains was found at the aircraft’s crash site, and the cockpit voice recorder gives no indication of a gun being fired or mentioned at any time.

We believe that if the hijackers had possessed a gun, they would have used it in the flight’s last minutes as the passengers fought back.82 Passengers on three flights reported the hijackers’ claim of having a bomb. The FBI told us they found no trace of explosives at the crash sites. One of the passengers who mentioned a bomb expressed his belief that it was not real. Lacking any evidence that the hijackers attempted to smuggle such illegal items past the security screening checkpoints, we believe the bombs were probably fake. During at least five of the passengers’ phone calls, information was shared about the attacks that had occurred earlier that morning at the World Trade Center. Five calls described the intent of passengers and surviving crew members to revolt against the hijackers. According to one call, they voted on whether to rush the terrorists in an attempt to retake the plane. They decided, and acted. At 9:57, the passenger assault began. Several passengers had terminated phone calls with loved ones in order to join the revolt. One of the callers ended her message as follows:

“Everyone’s running up to first class. I’ve got to go. Bye.” The cockpit voice recorder captured the sounds of the passenger assault muffled by the intervening cockpit door. Some family members who listened to the recording report that they can hear the voice of a loved one among the din.

We cannot identify whose voices can be heard. But the assault was sustained. In response, Jarrah immediately began to roll the airplane to the left and right, attempting to knock the passengers off balance. At 9:58:57, Jarrah told another hijacker in the cockpit to block the door. Jarrah continued to roll the airplane sharply left and right, but the assault continued. At 9:59, Jarrah changed tactics and pitched the nose of the airplane up and down to disrupt the assault. The recorder captured the sounds of loud thumps, crashes, shouts, and breaking glasses and plates.

At 10:00:03, Jarrah stabilized the airplane. Five seconds later, Jarrah asked, “Is that it? Shall we finish it off?” A hijacker responded, “No. Not yet. When they all come, we finish it off.” The sounds of fighting continued outside the cockpit. Again, Jarrah pitched the nose of the aircraft up and down.At 10:00:26, a passenger in the background said, “In the cockpit. If we don’t we’ll die!” Sixteen seconds later, a passenger yelled,“Roll it!” Jarrah stopped the violent maneuvers at about 10:01:00 and said, “Allah is the greatest! Allah is the greatest!” He then asked another hijacker in the cockpit,“ Is that it? I mean, shall we put it down?” to which the other replied, “Yes, put it in it, and pull it down.” The passengers continued their assault and at 10:02:23, a hijacker said, “Pull it down! Pull it down!” The hijackers remained at the controls but must have judged that the passengers were only seconds from overcoming them. The airplane headed down; the control wheel was turned hard to the right.

The airplane rolled onto its back, and one of the hijackers began shouting “Allah is the greatest. Allah is the greatest. ”With the sounds of the passenger counterattack continuing, the aircraft plowed into an empty field in Shanksville, Pennsylvania, at 580 miles per hour, about 20 minutes’ flying time from Washington D.C. Jarrah’s objective was to crash his airliner into symbols of the American Republic, the Capitol or the White House. He was defeated by the alerted, unarmed passengers of United”

The Mysterious Call of Edward Felt from UAL 93

Earlier coverage of the fate of UAL 93 was based in part on a reported cell call from a passenger named Edward Felt, who managed to reach an emergency official in Pennsylvania. How he got the emergency supervisor’s number and managed to reach him remains unclear.

The call was apparently received at 9.58 am, eight minutes before the reported time of the crash at 10.06 am in Pennsylvania:

“Local emergency officials said they received a cell phone call at 9.58 am from a man who said he was a passenger aboard the flight. The man said he had locked himself in the bathroom and told emergency dispatchers that the plane had been hijacked. “We are being hijacked! We are being hijacked!” he was quoted as saying. A California man identified as Tom Burnett reportedly called his wife and told her that somebody on the plane had been stabbed. “We’re all going to die, but three of us are going to do something,” he told her. “I love you honey.”

The alleged call by Edward Felt from the toilet of the aircraft of UAL 93 was answered by Glenn Cramer, the emergency supervisor in Pennsylvania who took the call.

It is worth noting that Glenn Cramer was subsequently gagged by the FBI.” (See Robert Wallace`s incisive analysis published in Sept 2002 by the Daily Mirror, (see this).

Ironically, this high profile cell call by Ed Felt, which would have provided crucial evidence to the 9/11 Commission was, for some reason, not mentioned in the Report.

Image on the right: Jules Naudet filmed the impact of Flight 11 as it crashed into the North Tower of theWorld Trade Center. (Source: Wikimedia Commons)

A high-rise tower covered by debris on two of its faces. In the lower left corner is a similar building.

American Airlines Flight 11

Flight 11 took off at 7:59. Just before 8:14. The Report outlines an airphone conversation of flight attendant Betty Ong and much of the narrative hinges upon this airphone conversation

There are no clear-cut reports on the use of cell phones on Flight AA11. According to the Report, American 11 crashed into the North Tower of the World Trade Center at 8.46.

Concluding Remarks

A large part of the description, regarding the 19 hijackers relies on cell phone conversations with family and friends.

While a few of these calls (placed at low altitude) could have got through, the wireless technology was not available. On this issue, expert opinion within the wireless telecom industry is unequivocal.

In other words, at least part of the Commission’s script in Chapter 1 on the cell phone conversations, is fabricated.

According to the American Airline / Qualcomm announcement, the technology for cell phone transmission at high altitude will only be available aboard commercial aircraft in 2006. This is an inescapable fact.

In the eyes of public opinion, the cell phone conversations on the Arab hijackers is needed to sustain the illusion that America is under attack.

The “war on terrorism” underlying the National Security doctrine relies on real time “evidence” concerning the Arab hijackers. The latter personify, so to speak, this illusive “outside enemy” (Al Qaeda), which is threatening the homeland.

Embodied into the Commission’s “script” of 911, the narrative of what happened on the plane with the Arab hijackers is therefore crucial. It is an integral part of the Administration’s disinformation and propaganda program. It constitutes a justification for the anti-terror legislation under the Patriot acts and the waging of America’s pre-emptive wars against Afghanistan and Iraq.



The 9/11 Report’s Footnotes on the Cell Phone Conversations

70. On FDR, see NTSB report,“Specialist’s Factual Report of Investigation—Digital Flight Data Recorder” for United Airlines Flight 93, Feb. 15, 2002; on CVR, see FBI report,“CVR from UA Flight #93,” Dec. 4, 2003; Commission review of Aircraft Communication and Reporting System (ACARS) messages sent to and from Flight 93 (which indicate time of message transmission and receipt); see UAL record, Ed Ballinger ACARS log, Sept. 11, 2001. At 9:22, after learning of the events at the World Trade Center, Melody Homer, the wife of co-pilot Leroy Homer, had an ACARS message sent to her husband in the cockpit asking if he was okay. See UAL record,ACARS message, Sept. 11, 2001.

71. On FDR, see NTSB report,“Specialist’s Factual Report of Investigation—Digital Flight Data Recorder” for United Airlines Flight 93, Feb. 15, 2002; on CVR, see FBI report,“CVR from UA Flight #93,” Dec. 4, 2003; FAA report,“Summary of Air Traffic Hijack Events: September 11, 2001,” Sept. 17, 2001; NTSB report, Air Traffic Control Recording—United Airlines Flight 93, Dec. 21, 2001.

72.The 37 passengers represented a load factor of 20.33 percent of the plane’s seating capacity of 182, considerably below the 52.09 percent for Flight 93 on Tuesdays in the three-month period prior to September 11 (June 11–September 4, 2001). See UAL report, Flight 93 EWR-SFO load factors, undated. Five passengers holding reservations for Flight 93 did not show for the flight.All five were interviewed and cleared by the FBI. FBI report,“Flight #93 ‘No Show’ Passengers from 9/11/01,” Sept. 18, 2001.

73. INS record,Withdrawal of Application for Admission for Mohamed al Kahtani,Aug. 4, 2001.

74. See FAA regulations,Admission to flight deck, 14 C.F.R. § 121.547 (2001);UAL records, copies of boarding passes for United 93, Sept. 11,2001.One passenger reported that ten first-class passengers were aboard the flight. If that number is accurate, it would include the four hijackers. FBI report of investigation, interview of Lisa Jefferson, Sept. 11, 2001;UAL record, Flight 93 passenger manifest, Sept. 11, 2001.All but one of the six passengers seated in the first-class cabin communicated with the ground during the flight, and none mentioned anyone from their cabin having gone into the cockpit before the hijacking.Moreover, it is unlikely that the highly regarded and experienced pilot and co-pilot of Flight 93 would have allowed an observer into the cockpit before or after takeoff who had not obtained the proper permission. See UAL records, personnel files of Flight 93 pilots. For jumpseat information, see UAL record,Weight and Balance Information for Flight 93 and Flight 175, Sept. 11, 2001;AAL records, Dispatch Environmental Control/Weekly Flight Summary for Flight 11 and Flight 77, Sept. 11, 2001.

75. Like Atta on Flight 11, Jarrah apparently did not know how to operate the communication radios; thus his attempts to communicate with the passengers were broadcast on the ATC channel. See FBI report,“CVR from UA Flight #93,” Dec. 4, 2003.Also, by 9:32 FAA notified United’s headquarters that the flight was not responding to radio calls.According to United, the flight’s nonresponse and its turn to the east led the airline to believe by 9:36 that the plane was hijacked. See Rich Miles interview (Nov. 21, 2003); UAL report, “United dispatch SMFDO activities—terrorist crisis,” Sept. 11, 2001.

76. In accordance with FAA regulations, United 93’s cockpit voice recorder recorded the last 31 minutes of sounds from the cockpit via microphones in the pilots’ headsets, as well as in the overhead panel of the flight deck. This is the only recorder from the four hijacked airplanes to survive the impact and ensuing fire.The CVRs and FDRs from American 11 and United 175 were not found,and the CVR from American Flight 77 was badly burned and not recoverable. See FBI report,“CVR from UA Flight #93,”Dec. 4, 2003; see also FAA regulations, 14 C.F.R. §§ 25.1457, 91.609, 91.1045, 121.359; Flight 93 CVR data. A transcript of the CVR recording was prepared by the NTSB and the FBI.

77. All calls placed on airphones were from the rear of the aircraft. There was one airphone installed in each row of seats on both sides of the aisle.The airphone system was capable of transmitting only eight calls at any one time. See FBI report of investigation, airphone records for flights UAL 93 and UAL 175 on Sept. 11, 2001, Sept. 18, 2001.

78.FAA audio file, Cleveland Center, position Lorain Radar; Flight 93 CVR data; FBI report, “CVR from UA Flight #93,” Dec. 4, 2003.

79. FBI reports of investigation, interviews of recipients of calls from Todd Beamer, Sept. 11, 2001, through June 11, 2002; FBI reports of investigation, interviews of recipients of calls from Sandy Bradshaw, Sept. 11, 2001, through Oct. 4, 2001.Text messages warning the cockpit of Flight 93 were sent to the aircraft by Ed Ballinger at 9:24. See UAL record, Ed Ballinger’s ACARS log, Sept. 11, 2001.

80.We have relied mainly on the record of FBI interviews with the people who received calls. The FBI interviews were conducted while memories were still fresh and were less likely to have been affected by reading the accounts of others or hearing stories in the media. In some cases we have conducted our own interviews to supplement or verify the record. See FBI reports of investigation, interviews of recipients of calls from Todd Beamer, Mark Bingham,Sandy Bradshaw,Marion Britton,Thomas Burnett, Joseph DeLuca,Edward Felt, Jeremy Glick,Lauren
Grandcolas, Linda Gronlund, CeeCee Lyles, Honor Wainio.

81. FBI reports of investigation, interviews of recipients of calls from Thomas Burnett, Sept. 11, 2001; FBI reports of investigation, interviews of recipients of calls from Marion Britton, Sept. 14, 2001, through Nov. 8, 2001; Lisa Jefferson interview (May 11, 2004); FBI report of investigation, interview of Lisa Jefferson, Sept. 11, 2001; Richard Belme interview (Nov. 21, 2003).

82. See Jere Longman, Among the Heroes—United Flight 93 and the Passengers and Crew Who Fought Back (Harper-Collins, 2002), p. 107; Deena Burnett interview (Apr. 26, 2004); FBI reports of investigation, interviews of recipients of calls from Jeremy Glick, Sept. 11, 2001, through Sept. 12, 2001; Lyzbeth Glick interview (Apr. 22, 2004). Experts told us that a gunshot would definitely be audible on the CVR. The FBI found no evidence of a firearm at the crash site of Flight 93. See FBI response to Commission briefing request no. 6, undated (topic 11).The FBI collected 14 knives or portions of knives at the Flight 93 crash site. FBI report, “Knives Found at the UA Flight 93 Crash Site,” undated.

83. FBI response to Commission briefing request no. 6, undated (topic 11); FBI reports of investigation, interviews of recipients of calls from Jeremy Glick, Sept. 11, 2001, through Sept. 12, 2001.

84. See FBI reports of investigation, interviews of recipients of calls from United 93.

85. FBI reports of investigation, interviews of recipients of calls from United 93. For quote, see FBI report of investigation, interview of Philip Bradshaw, Sept. 11, 2001; Philip Bradshaw interview (June 15, 2004); Flight 93 FDR and CVR data.At 9:55:11 Jarrah dialed in the VHF Omni-directional Range (VOR) frequency for the VOR navigational aid at Washington Reagan National Airport, further indicating that the attack was planned for the nation’s capital.

Jew Inventions Myths via

Jew Inventions Myths

Perhaps you’ve heard the claims: Were it not for the genius and energy of Jewish inventors, struggling against the racist oppression of anti-Semitic Whites, we might find ourselves in a world lacking stainless steel, lipstick, lasers, shopping carts, chlorinated water, and a vast number of other things we now take for granted but could hardly imagine life without.

The usual argument of the individuals presenting these claims is that Whites owe a great debt to the creative intelligence of Jews—by which they clearly mean the ethnic group—without whom none of the items in question would ever have been invented. This supposition will be revealed here for the nonsense that it is. While Jews and other non-Whites comprise fine specks on the tapestry of inventive history, the fabric from which it is entirely composed is White.

In most cases, Jewish invention myths are dishonest revisions to historical fact in which one or more individuals have skimmed the history of a given idea looking for any Jews to be found and then claiming that the whole of it would not exist without them. In each such instance, the Whites who first invented the concept and/or built the earliest versions are ignored, as are those who perfected it later and those along side of whom the Jew was working, all to foist a fallacious perspective on the reader that Jews make the world go around and Whites desperately need them.

The grounds for assigning priority of invention here will be highly logical: The first known individual to provably conceive of a functioning version of the item or idea according to the parameters of its usual modern definition is the proper inventor. Often this will be the first patent holder, but design patents do not require physical prototypes and some ideas do not truly require a patent to be provably established conceptually. In such cases, journal articles or similar records will be presented instead.

Of the dozens of items and concepts considered here, only a few have any legitimate claim to being original Jewish ideas by even the most technical of criteria, and not a single one of them is so original and unprecedented that it would not exist in some form if Jews were removed from history. Worse still, several of the claims discussed here are rather sinister in construction—instances in which unscrupulous persons have gone to major lengths to try to rewrite history to credit Jews for inventions that weren’t really theirs. In some cases, individuals have even gone so far as to pursue massive litigation to force society to alter the record regarding who should receive credit for an innovation.

Each item below is listed with its supposed Jewish originator, when available, along with the year it was ostensibly invented, followed by something about the real origin of the invention or at least an earlier instance of it. All other individuals mentioned are White, not Jewish, unless specifically stated otherwise. What one must bear in mind most of all when reading these is the perpetual confrontational assertion accompanying these myths that we would not have these things were it not for the Jews. In each instance, I think an honest person will conclude at the very least that this clearly is not so.

Traffic Lights
Invented by Charles Adler in 1928? – No!Apparently it isn’t just Blacks who try to claim credit for this invention, but the answer is still the same: The earliest electric traffic light was invented by Lester Farnsworth Wire in 1912 in Salt Lake City, Utah. He did not bother with a patent. The first one patented was James Hoge’s in Cleveland in 1914, US Patent # 1,251,666. Interestingly, the Blacks’ false claim for this invention involves an earlier event than the Jews’ false claim.

The Laser
Invented by Theodore Maiman in 1960? – No!Gordon Gould (US Patent #4,053,845) is the name one is supposed to assign that distinction. The problem is that the patent listed above was granted only after many years of legal battle with Gould’s former teacher, Charles H. Townes, whose patent was #2,929,922, granted on March 22, 1960, fully two months before Maiman’s laser came into existence. Gould, meanwhile, first filed for his laser patent in 1959, which was still after Townes, but his legal argument to wrestle credit away from Townes was that he thought of it first and simply didn’t act. With the help of a supposedly previously written notebook (notarized by a very close personal friend of his) and a greedy corporation with some very despicable lawyers, he eventually won his case. Maiman’s first laser patent (#3,353,115), meanwhile, didn’t come until 1961.

Townes, who also invented the maser years earlier, creating the groundwork for the laser in the first place, is not Jewish. Invention patents do not require prototypes, and Maiman didn’t even have the idea until after seeing Townes’ 1958 paper on the concept in a scientific journal. Perhaps if Townes’ design had never worked, there would be an argument for Maiman being the inventor, but it worked just fine.

As to Gould’s ethnic identity, some sources say he is a Jew and more say he isn’t. He certainly acts like one. His case was, in many ways, a turning point in the history of invention priority because before his lawyers rammed this case through, saying you thought of it first didn’t mean anything if you were too stupid to patent or publish the idea, and bringing in a few scribbled notebook pages inexplicably notarized by your best friend would get you laughed out of court.

Townes clearly invented the laser whether or not Gould is Jewish.

The Pacemaker
Invented by Paul Zoll in 1952? – No!The pacemaker was invented by Dr. Mark Lidwell and Edgar H. Booth in 1926. See the discussion of this matter by McVenes, Stokes, and Stokes in “Implantable cardiac electrostimulation devices,” publish in Implantable Neural Prostheses 1, 2009, pp. 221-251.

Genetic Engineering
Invented by Stanley N. Cohen in 1973? – No!Inventions like genetic engineering are always problematic because the definition of the term is ambiguous. The definition the Cohen fans are going for here seems to be one of recombinant DNA—the specific modification of a genetic sequence using direct chromosomal alteration.

The first person to perform that feat was David A. Jackson of the University of Michigan. For proof, see Jackson, Symons, and Berg’s “Biochemical method for inserting new genetic information into DNA of Simian Virus 40: circular SV40 DNA molecules containing lambda phage genes and the galactose operon of Escherichia coli” in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, volume 69, issue 10, 1972, pp. 2904-2909.

The problem with identifying even Dr. Jackson as the inventor is that the idea preceded his work. The idea was first proposed, so far as is known, by Peter Lobban of Stanford for his thesis. (Peter E. Lobban, “The Generation of Transducing Phage In Vitro,” third exam, November 6, 1969.) He isn’t a Jew, either, so the evidence does not support the assertion that we would not have genetic engineering without Jews.

Electron Crystallography
Invented by Aaron Klug in 1978? – No!The single individual most responsible for this complex and ongoing science was the Russian scientist Z. G. Pinsker, working in the late 1930’s. See, for example, Udalova and Pinsker’s article “Electron diffraction study of the structure of ammonium sulfate” in the peer-reviewed journal Soviet Physics—Crystalography, volume 8, issue 4, 1964, p. 433.

The Defibrillator
Invented by Paul Zoll in 1952? – No!The first defibrillator was invented by Jean-Louis Prévost and Frédéric Batelli in Geneva, Switzerland in 1899. The first external defibrillator was invented by William Bennett Kouwenhoven in 1930. See Gordon, Fainer, and Ivy article “Artificial respiration: a new method and a comparative study of different methods in adults” in the Journal of the American Medical Association, volume 144, issue 17, 1950, pp. 1455-1464.

Stainless Steel
Invented by Benno Strauss in 1912? – No!It seems like everyone tries to take the credit for inventing stainless steel. The earliest known stainless steel by the modern definition was designed as an alloy by a non-Jewish Frenchman named Brustlein in 1875. Even though he didn’t call it by that name, he clearly understood the relationship between chromium, carbon, and corrosion resistance. The only possible argument against Brustlein is that the technology didn’t yet exist to make what he designed, though there was a patent three years earlier by two men from England on a corrosion-resistant, high-chromium steel, found more by accident than understanding, however, and making up for the high carbon content by adding tungsten.

Many other non-Jews worked with various kinds of stainless steel before Benno Strauss and his non-jewish partner patented their own version, most significantly Leon Gillet in 1904 who documented the composition of a very useful formulation for it. Why don’t all these people count?

Many sources cite Harry Brearley as the proper inventor of stainless steel for succeeding in making a high-chromium, low-carbon, corrosion-resistant steel in 1913 because he was the first to actually make a martensitic version, meaning it was both strong and could be hardened or tempered. If you have a stainless steel knife, you can ultimately credit him. He wasn’t Jewish.

Since then, there have been many patents on new kinds of stainless steel. One conclusion is must be drawn from all of this: We would have stainless steel without Jews because Jews didn’t invent it.

Invented by Hans Goldschmidt in 1895? – No!Goldschmidt certainly gave it the name thermite that everyone now uses, and made a lot of money selling it for industrial welding, but the process in general was discovered earlier by an English chemist named Claude Vautin, who discussed the ability of aluminum powder to reduce many oxides, including iron, with such ferocity that the crucible in which it was ignited was destroyed:

“The affinity of finely powdered aluminum for oxygen, sulphur, chlorine, etc., is such that is it utilized to effect a reduction of metals from their respective oxides, sulfides and chlorides. This was known for many years and is generally credited to Frederick Wohler. About 1894 Claude Vautin found that when aluminum in a finely divided state was mixed with such compounds and ignited, an exceedingly high temperature was developed by the rapid oxidation of aluminum. . . . Profiting by the experiments already made, Dr. Hans Goldschmidt of Essen Germany discovered a method of igniting a cold mixture of fine aluminum and iron oxide . . .” (American Machinist, volume 50, McGraw-Hill, 1919, p. 243.)

Goldschmidt was certainly not the discoverer of this chemical behavior. His real contribution, as mentioned above, was simply using a fuse to set off the mixture such that it did not need to be pre-heated in an oven. He did not even invent the fuse; he merely chose one of the many chemical ignition methods known at that time.

Thermite is an extremely simple invention (rust plus aluminum powder) that inevitably followed the sudden greater availability of aluminum after a White man invented a far better process for refining it. There is absolutely no question we would have thermite if Hans Goldschmidt had never existed, but we wouldn’t call it thermite. I guess we should be thankful to him for the spiffy name.

Oral Contraception
Invented by Gregory Pincus in 1960? – No!Actually the first known oral contraceptive was the seed of the silphium plant two thousand years ago, probably of the Ferula genus, and now extinct. It has been suggested more than once that the appearance of this seed, common in brothels of the time, was the source of the heart shape now associated with love and romance.

Pincus was primarily the entrepreneur in charge of a project to create a contraceptive pill. The actual creator of the formulation that became the first oral contraceptive was a Polish (non-Jewish) chemist named Frank Coulton in 1952. See Marsh, Margaret, and Ronner’s The fertility doctor: John Rock and the reproductive revolution, from JHU Press, 2010, p. 151.

Polio Vaccine
Invented by Jonas Salk in 1955? – No!The real inventor of the first successful polio vaccine for human beings was a White man named Dr. Howard Howe of Johns Hopkins University. This is confirmed in newspaper articles from 1952 including The Day of New London, Connecticut. The story reads, “Using a vaccine made of killed polio virus, Dr. Howe found that it made children develop antibodies against the virus. He presented his findings today at the annual meeting of the American Public Health association in Cleveland.”

So why does Salk always get the credit? Dr. Howe insisted that further testing was needed before wide-spread distribution should begin, just to be safe. Salk, however, desired fame and was less cautious to push his vaccine out, which accidentally resulted in thousands of children getting polio from a flawed batch and eleven consequently dying from it. Maybe Salk fans should be sure to mention that part whenever they tout his name.

The Heimlich Maneuver?
Invented by Henry Heimlich? – No!Ironically, the eponymous choking-alleviation technique that Dr. Heimlich claims inventing was probably the brainchild of his long-forgotten partner, Dr. Edward Patrick. It is not only Dr. Patrick who says so, but also Dr. Heimlich’s own son.

These assertions might be written off as envy and rebelliousness were it not for the fact that Dr. Heimlich has gone on to promote a whole plethora of crackpot medical techniques that he supposedly invented, including using “his” anti-choking maneuver on drowning victims (which the medical establishment very firmly insists is dangerous and ineffective), and the deliberate infection with malaria of people with everything from AIDS to Lyme disease to “cure through fever.” See, for example, “St. Louis University Under Fire for Work with Doctor Who Infected AIDS Patients with Malaria” in the St. Louis RFT, Sept. 9, 2013. (St. Louis University Under Fire for Work with Doctor Who Infected AIDS Patients with Malaria | Riverfront Times)

Worse still, the overthrow of the prior technique for treating choking victims—a few good smacks on the back—appears to have been brought about by falsified studies performed by Heimlich’s own foundation supposedly showing the back-slaps to be less effective. The American Medical Association has since discarded this false evidence and established once again that five hard slaps on the back works better as a first approach. In that case, maybe it doesn’t rally matter if it was invented by a Jew or not.

Finally, there is the matter of a very similar technique of old to consider. Dr. F. R. S. Marshall Hall writes in his 1841 book On the Diseases and Derangement of the Nervous System that the best treatment for choking is as follows: “Pressure being made on the abdomen, to prevent the descent of the diaphragm, a forcible blow should be made by the flat of the hand on the thorax. The effect of this is to induce an effort similar to that of expiration; the larynx being closed, oesophageal vomiting takes place, and the morsel is dislodged” (p. 79).

Drs. William Braithwaite and Walter Wells clarify that this is applied to the front of the body, not the back, in their 1861 text, Abdomen-Hypochondriasis on page 872: “Dr. Marshall Hall advises: In cases of sudden choking, as from a morsel of food, take the patient, generally a child, between your knees, one knee (the right) pressing firmly on the stomach, and the other on the back; then place one hand on the back of the thorax, and give a firm blow with the other on the sternum, the morsel will sometimes be expelled with force to a considerable distance.”

It seems it doesn’t take Jews to figure out that inducing a sharp exhalation by various means will help eject an obstruction to the airway.

Cholera Vaccine
Invented by Waldemar Haffkine in 1892? – No!The first cholera vaccine was invented by the Spanish physician Jaume Ferran i Clua in 1885. See Kaper, J. B. (1989). Vibrio cholerae vaccines. Review of Infectious Diseases, 11(Supplement 3), S568-S573.

Water Chlorination
Invented by Abel Wolman in 1922? – No!Wolman was just some guy who worked as an engineer at the Maryland State Department of Health. City water was first chlorinated in Maidstone, England in 1897 by Sir German Sims Woodhead. See Ritchie, Boycott, and Dean’s article “German Sims Woodhead. KBE, MD, LL. D. Born April 29th, 1855–Died December 29th, 1921” in The Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology, volume 25, issue 1, 1922, pp. 118-137.

Plague Vaccine
Invented by Waldemar Haffkine in 1897? – No!First of all, there really isn’t a plague vaccine yet, so we might as well be asking who invented the first self-healing airplane even though there aren’t any. The vaccine being referred to was removed from use long ago because it was usually ineffective and often caused severe inflammation. To clarify, this vaccine of his is not used precisely because it does not work. Does an invention that doesn’t work still count as an invention?

Haffkine was far from being the only researcher attempting to use Pasteur’s methods to make a vaccine for the plague. The difference is that all the others (literally dozens of them) were honest enough to admit that their attempts had failed. Haffkine, meanwhile, went around supposedly inoculating people, most of whom would subsequently die when actually exposed to the plague. Were they told the risks?

His survival rate was statistically boosted by the fact that many of the success stories were simply people who never actually got exposed to the disease, and this reveals the danger of post-hoc fallacies in medicine: Assuming they didn’t die of plague only and entirely because of the vaccine is flawed reasoning. Two thirds of Europe survived the plague in the Middle Ages, not because they were all immune, but because most of them (fortunately) were not exposed enough to contract the infection.

This was not Haffkine’s only major screwup. He was in fact indicted in 1902 for nineteen horrific deaths of Indian villagers by tetanus after they were inoculated against it by Dr. Haffkine. The deaths were ultimately blamed on one of his assistants, however, which shows that when a Jew has coworkers, those individuals don’t get credit for the successes, but they do get the blame for the failures.

The first antiserum against plague (though there really isn’t one yet) was invented in 1895 by two White man from France named Alexandre Yersin and Paul-Louis Simond. Yersin was the individual responsible for identifying the method by which plague was spread—fleas on rats—and the bacterium responsible. See, for example, Barbara Hawgood’s article “Alexandre Yersin (1863–1943): discoverer of the plague bacillus, explorer and agronomist” in the Journal of medical biography, volume 16, no. 3 (2008).

Their antiserum injection had about the same efficacy rate as Haffkine’s later vaccine—fifty percent on a good day, which means that theirs was more effective because it was used only on people who were clearly already infected instead of those who might later be exposed (or might not). Still, this is not good enough.

The simple truth is that, even now, your odds are not great if you get plague, which really is still around in the present day, because nobody has yet invented an injection that will prevent or treat it dependably. We are still waiting for the first real plague vaccine or antiserum to be invented, so until somebody actually does that, I don’t think it’s asking too much to request that people stop crediting Jews for things that don’t yet exist.

Hepatitis B Vaccine
Invented by Barry Blumberg in 1969? – No!The reason, of course, that Jews do not list the Jew Saul Krugman as the inventor (who made an early shoddy vaccine by simply boiling infected serum) in order to push back the date is that Krugman was intentionally infecting mentally retarded children at Willowbrook State School with hepatitis to study the effects. To clarify, he was not testing a vaccine on them; he was intentionally giving 800 children the disease. (See Cuenod and Gasser, “Research on the mentally incompetent,” Journal of medical ethics, volume 29, number 1, 2003, pp. 19-21.) The principal difference between this and the Tuskegee Syphilis Study is that this actually happened, while Tuskegee is embellished nonsense made up by hysterical anti-Whites.

The trick being played here is the word “vaccine.” Yes, it’s certainly true that Blumberg and his team (including several Whites) developed the first hepatitis vaccine, by technical definition, because they had the extreme fortune to happen upon an extraordinarily rare antigen (from an Australoid individual) that was not found commonly anywhere else. Many people were working on a vaccine at the time, and the method by which it is presently produced has nothing to do with Blumberg and nothing to do with Jews in general, so we would still have a vaccine if he and all his kind had never lived.

And his was not the first preventative vaccination for the disease. The word is used as a verb in that sentence to refer to the process, not the technical definition of vaccine. The first people to do it were Joseph Stokes and John R. Neefe, who found that injections of gamma globulin immunized individuals against hepatitis in general back in 1945. This was used all the way up to the early seventies because it worked very well. They were not Jewish. See Stokes and Neefe’s “The prevention and attenuation of infectious hepatitis by gamma globulin: preliminary note” in the Journal of the American Medical Association, volume 127, number 3 (1945), pp. 144-145.

Does it matter that they were not injecting an actual vaccine? Definitely not! The “vaccine” that individuals now receive for the disease isn’t really a vaccine either because it is just an antigen coming from genetically modified organisms instead of the hepatitis virus itself. Despite this, it is called a vaccine and the injection of it to induce immunity is called vaccination. Dr. Stokes’ gamma globulin injections served exactly the same purpose. The proponents of the Blumberg myth make it sound like we were completely helpless against the disease before he came along and saved us, and they have selectively ignored the counter-evidence to do

Nuclear Chain Reaction
Invented by Leó Szilárd in 1936? – No!Leó Szilárd’s concept of a nuclear reaction was incapable of working because he did not understand it properly. He patented a concept of a nuclear chain reaction using light, neutron-yielding isotopes to somehow trigger each other in a cascade. This notion is fundamentally flawed and every attempt to employ it failed and always will.

The first nuclear chain reaction was achieved by the non-Jewish Enrico Fermi in 1942 using heavy isotopes undergoing neutron-generating fission. See Fermi’s “The development of the first chain reacting pile,” in the Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 1946, pp. 20-24.

Surely patenting something that doesn’t work and that you don’t understand doesn’t give you rights to something later that does work and that you didn’t think of. Recall the logical criteria for assigning priority here: the first conception of a functional version. If we are going to hand this to Szilárd for having no clue how to do it, we might as well hand it to the Russian scientist Nikolay Semenov for developing the concept of chain reactions in the first place starting in 1928. See Peter Krehl’s book History of Shock Waves, Explosions, and Impacts, from Springer Science & Business Media, 2008. Semenov was not Jewish.

Blue Jeans
Invented by Levi Strauss and Jacob David in 1871? – No!The people who make this argument need to read the actual patent: It was for using rivets to reinforce the corners of pants pockets. That’s it.

Blue jeans are simply trousers made from denim or dungaree cloth and dyed blue. So when were blue denim trousers invented? Who knows! As far back as the mid-seventeenth century, blue was the traditional color for denim trousers of sailers in Genoa, Italy, from which the name “jeans” is derived. These two Jews did not invent jeans. Please see the article “Mystery of Denim’s Origins Solved by Art” at Mystery of Denim’s Origins Solved by Art : Discovery News : Discovery News.

Magnetic Information Storage
Invented by Jacob Rabinow in 1954? – No!The first magnetic information storage was invented by the Danish engineer Valdemar Poulsen in 1900. It is US Patent #661,619. The first magnetic recording tape was created by the German Fritz Pfleumer in 1929. His subsequent device for recording and reproducing sound in this matter is US Patent #2,247,847 from 1941.

Invented by Maurice Levy in 1915? Heavens– No!Lipstick was invented in Sumeria about five thousand years ago, and has been in pretty much continuous use ever since. Please refer to Ogilvie and Ryan’s “Lipstick: More than a fashion trend” from Edith Cowan University in Australia, 2011. This is one of the more ridiculous claims on the list.

The Ballpoint Pen
Invented by Laszlo Biro in 1938? – No!The first ballpoint pen was patented by John J. Loud in 1888 (US Patent #392,046). He was not a Jew.

Instant Coffee
Invented by some Jew sometime in the twentieth century? – No!While this claim pops up a lot, the exact name and date are never specified. It certainly makes one wonder how those who propagate it are so very certain. I doubt the vast majority of them ever do any more than repost the list and then smugly assert that it “proves” Jews are best at inventing. In any case, it doesn’t matter who they choose because instant coffee was invented by David Strang, a White man from New Zealand, in 1890, patent number 3518.

Color Photography
Invented by Leopold Mannes in 1917? – No!The first color photographs were taken by the French physicist Edmund Becquerel in 1848. He used the method he developed to photograph the spectrum from a prism, and published the results in a scientific article, “L’image photographique colorée du spectre solaire” in the journal Comptes Rendus, vol. 26, pp. 181–183.

The Remote Control
Invented by Robert Adler in 1950? – No!The remote control was invented by the Serbian genius Nikola Tesla in 1898, US Patent #613,809.

The Carburetor
Invented by Donat Banki in 1893? – No!The Carburetor was invented by an Italian named Luigi De Cristoforis, in 1876, as described in the Acts of the Lombard Royal Institute of Science.

Virtual Reality
Invented by Stanley Weinbaum in 1935? – No!At least, he didn’t invent it unless we are counting ideas that a person has absolutely no clue how to implement in any sense other than magic. Weinbaum was just an author, not an inventor.

Actual VR was invented by Thomas A. Furness III in 1966 when he designed and built a visual flight simulator for the air force. See HITLab People : Thomas A. Furness III.

LP Records
Invented by Peter Carl Goldmark in 1948? – No!The phonograph itself was invented by Thomas Edison in 1880, of course, US Patent #227,679. The prototype LP record was developed by Western Electric in 1926. RCA Victor introduced the first commercially available thirty-three and a third LP records in 1931. See Bachman’s “The LP and the Single” in the Journal of the Audio Engineering Society, volume 25, issue 10/11, 1977, pp. 821-823. All of this took place before 1948, obviously.

Sound Movies
Invented by Joseph Tykocinski in 1922? – No!Movies with sound were invented by a Swiss man named Charles François Dussaud in 1899. See Emily Smith’s The Akira Kurosawa Handbook from Emereo Publishing, 2013, p. 460.

Invented by Charles Ginsberg in 1950? – No!Magnetic recording tape was invented by Fritz Pfleumer in 1929, as already discussed. Using this same tape to record video was a very obvious step, making one wonder why we would bother crediting ANYONE with “inventing videotape.” It’s the same stuff. The trick is that video has so much more data to record in the same time interval. The first person known to have solved that problem was Jack Mullin in 1947. See Hammar’s article “Jack Mullin: The Man and His Machines” in the Journal of the Audio Engineering Society, vol. 37, no. 6, 1989, pp. 490-512.

Some try to give credit to Charles Ginsburg for the invention because he was the head of a TEAM of people (including one extremely bright young White man you might have heard of named Ray Dolby) who developed a system where the tape moved slowly and the playing head moved rapidly, shortly after Mullin’s solution was made public.

Color Television
Invented by David Sarnoff in 1953? – No!As others have pointed out, David Sarnoff was not an inventor, but merely a corporate manager to whom RCA inventors reported—most significantly a White man named George Harold Brown (who has eighty patents while Sarnoff has zero). In truth, it was a White man named Hunter Goodrich who created the tri-color picture tube that made the process possible. It is US Patent # 2,677,779.

Instant Photography
Invented by Edwin Herbert Land in 1947? – No!The first instant camera was invented by Samuel Shlafrock in 1925. (US Patent #1,559,795) He was polish, not Jewish, having changed the spelling of his name from Szlafrok to make the pronunciation more obvious in English.

Invented by Dennis Gabor in 1948? – No!It should first be clarified that Dennis Gabor in no way conceived of holograms as anyone in the modern world understands them. He was trying only to improve the resolution of electron microscopes and never even imagined three-dimensional pictures stored on photographic film to be viewed with two eyes. That invention came from a White man in Russia named Yuri Nikolaevich Denisyuk in 1962. (Y.N. Denisyuk, “On the reflection of optical properties of an object in a wave field of light scattered by it,” Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, vol. 144, no. 6, 1962, pp. 1275-1278.)

It is certainly true that Gabor coined the term “hologram,” but holography as a process predates his paper on the subject by decades. The method employed for analysis using both amplitude and phase of a radio wave had been in use for many years as an optical computation system. (See Caulfield’s Handbook of Optical Holography from Academic Press, New York, 1979, p. 6.)

The concept also dates back to the work of Mieczyslaw Wolfke, who wrote in 1920 that X-ray diffraction patterns of crystals illuminated by monochromatic light create a new diffraction pattern identical to the original object. This, by definition, is holography. Mieczyslaw Wolfke made holograms functionally and intentionally. His paper on the subject is “About the possibility of optical imaging of molecular lattices” in Physikische Zeitschrft, vol. 21, pp. 495-7. The problem is that Wolfke was not a Jew. He was a White man from Poland.

Gabor’s own mathematical interpretation of holographic optical phenomena is certainly original and has even been useful, but the assertion by some that we would have no holograms without him is clearly bunk, regardless of the definition one wishes to use for the term. The process predates him and the modern meaning of the term was never imagined by him.

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (rechristened Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
Discovered by Isidor Isaac Rabi in 1938? – No!Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is, in modern use, a chemical analysis and imaging process that has almost nothing to do with the original investigations, and trying to credit Rabi for the modern ideas is like trying to credit the inventor of the abacus for electronic computers even if he had been the original source of the concept.

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance was discovered in 1946 by a White man named Edward Purcell. (The article is “Resonance Absorption by Nuclear Magnetic Moments in a Solid” in Physical Review, vol. 69, 1946, p. 37.) What this statement means is that Purcell and his colleagues successfully observed the phenomenon that had already been predicted by theory. So who created that theory? Was it Rabi? No. Was it another Jew? No. It seems to have been a White man named C. J. Görter who discussed the idea in a paper two years before Rabi: Physica, vol. 3, 1936, p. 995.

Invented by Jewish immigrants to the United States in the 1920’s? – No!Cheesecake is first mentioned as far back in history as ancient Greece, described by a physician named Aegimus, who discussed it as an already established and elaborate art.

The Shopping Cart
Invented by Sylvan Goodman in 1940? – No!This invention, like lipstick, is almost too silly to bother even discussing. The invention of carts goes with the invention of the wheel by Indo-Europeans thousands of years ago. Presumably a shopping cart is a cart that one uses while shopping. Apparently one is supposed to believe that nobody ever used a cart to hold purchases until Goodman saved humanity from its short-sightedness. Little red wagons used for transporting purchases don’t count, apparently, and nor do hand carts, vender carts, wheel barrows, laundry carts, and roller carts.

Since Goodman’s advocates will insist on seeing a prior patent for a shopping cart, here it is: “Shopping wagon,” US Patent #1,817,260 from 1931, by J. V. Longan. The application clearly states that is is for “shopping in retail stores, or for use in the homes of individuals in simplifying the work of the housewives in performing the necessary household duties. The device as described above is a combination shopping wagon and baby cart.” In other words, it is a cart to be used while shopping. Items to be purchased go into it, and there’s even a place to set your baby while you wander the isles picking out goods. Sound familiar?

For those who would argue that Longan’s invention bears little resemblance to modern shopping carts, please notice that Goodman’s does not either. The shopping cart as we all now picture it was invented by a White man named Orla Watson in 1949, US Patent #2,479,530.

So is J.V. Longan the true inventor of the shopping cart? Who knows! What kind of person would make such a big deal out of such a trivial invention? One thing is clear though: Sylvan Goodman did not invent the concept of using a cart when shopping, no matter what anyone tries to tell you.

Invented by Sydney Farber in 1948? – No!The first time chemical treatment was known to have been applied to cancer was 1946 by Alfred Z. Gilman, Louis S. Goodman, and Gustaf E. Lindskog. Refer to their article “Nitrogen mustard therapy: Use of methyl-bis (beta-chloroethyl) amine hydrochloride and tris (beta-chloroethyl) amine hydrochloride for Hodgkin’s disease, lymphosarcoma, leukemia and certain allied and miscellaneous disorders” in the Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 132, iss. 3, pp. 126-132.

None of them are Jews, though Goodman might be Mestizo, judging from his photographs. Some people will also confuse the Alfred Gilman mentioned here for Alfred G. Gilman, who is a Jew, but had nothing to do with chemotherapy research.

Local Anesthesia
Invented by Alfred Einhorn in 1806? – No!Invented by Carl Koller in 1884? – No!

Local anesthesia goes way, way back in history. It is certainly true that one of these two men invented one more of the caine drugs in a long line of them (Novocaine, which followed amylocaine and benzocaine by White inventors, and was later replaced by lidocaine by another White inventor since Novocaine caused so many allergic reactions), but there is no way to credit him alone in the midst of that line for local anesthesia. Nor is it valid to credit the other, an eye doctor who gave his patients cocaine, which generally would not be considered a sane practice to emulate.

Local anesthetics as numbing agents go back in Europe at least as long as everyone has known the effect of clove oil on a toothache or menthol on skin irritation (which go even farther back in the explorations of the Indo-Europeans to the Middle-East and India), and those are only a couple of examples. The people trying to promote Jews as crucial inventors were really stretching on this one.

A further word should also be added about Novocaine, since Jewish invention lists often include it: The game being played here is that most people continue to use the term for local anesthesia injections in general despite the fact that Novocaine is almost never used anymore. Your dentist is giving you lidocaine, not Novocaine. As the list above shows, a Jew did indeed invent one more “caine” in the middle of a very long list, but his substance is not the one now used, and was not the first, so the implication that we owe Jews every time we have dental work done is extremely dishonest.

The Geosynchronous Communications Satellite
Invented by Harold A. Rosen in 1961? – No!Rosen was in charge of a team at Hughes Aircraft that built the first such satellite. It was not his invention and was was not even by any of his team of White engineers. It was the brainchild of a Slovene rocket engineer named Herman Potocnik in 1928, who not only worked out the calculations for such an orbit, but commented on the usefulness of placing objects there in observation of and communication with the earth via radio.

Invented by Arthur Eichengrün in 1897? – No!While Eichengrün made this false claim in 1949 to try to get fame he didn’t deserve, the true inventor was a non-Jew named Felix Hoffman. The company for which both men worked at the time (Bayer) has confirmed this in a press release. Felix Hoffmann — Personalities of Bayer’s History – Bayer This is in spite of recent pathetic litigation that has attempted to force a revision of history to name Eichengrün instead of Hoffman.

Benzodiazepine (Librium and Valium)
Invented by Leo Sternbach in 1961? – No!(Well, he was in the room at the time.) Sternbach headed a group of scientists including Earl Reeder and Lowell Randall, along with others whose names are even more forgotten than theirs are. They wanted to test the psychoactive effects of a dye-related compound and they put it through the usual paces of chemically altering it this way and that way and sending it off for testing. None of the variants did anything significant. The company for whom they worked (Roche) saw this and after a couple years, told them to give it up and move on to something else.

They were cleaning out the lab to start on something new when Earl—not Leo—noticed a single sample that had somehow gone unprocessed. He—not Leo—sent it off for testing, and lo and behold, it was an amazing tranquilizer.

So what we have is a bunch of people working together on a project, certainly not all Jews. They made countless formulations together, largely failed together, and then one of them sends off a sample that Sternbach would have simply thrown in the trash. And behold, the inventor of benzodiazapine becomes Sternbach, all by himself, all alone, in every textbook and webpage—and most importantly on the patent. Ka-CHING!

For confirmation of this story, read here: Stanley Osborne in Benzodiazepine 152 Success Secrets – 152 Most Asked Questions On Benzodiazepine – What You Need To Know, Emereo Publishing, 2014, pp. 126-140.

Would we have benzodiazapine without Jews? Who knows, but the question hardly matters since it is just one more in a very long list of tranquilizers, which may not actually be a good thing.

Invented by Klaus Schmiegel in 1982? – No!As much as I would like to blame a Jew for this awful substance, I must actually blame two Asians and three White guys: David T. Wong, Jong S. Horng, Frank P. Bymaster, Kenneth L. Hauser, Bryan B. Molloy for noting its serotonin-related effects in 1974: “A selective inhibitor of serotonin uptake: Lilly 110140, 3-(p-trifluoromethylphenoxy)-N-methyl-3-phenylpropylamine” published in Life sciences, vol. 15, no. 3, 1974, pp 471-479.

Kidney Dialysis
Invented by Willem Johan Kolff in 1943? Yes! Try as I might, I cannot find any source identifying him as Jew, despite his unfortunate nose. This is assuming they mean him and not someone else, since it is similarly difficult to find an actual name to go with the claim. The “Jewish invention” lists simply assert that a Jew invented the dialysis machine without giving an identity or a year. I think semitophiles either mistook him for a Jew because of his anti-German attitude during the Second World War, or they are trying to give credit for his invention to the Jewish man in charge of the hospital at the time. Either way, they are mistaken.

Sonar and Sonograms
Invented by Robert Rines in 1970? – No!This has to be one of the more hilarious mistakes on the list. Rines spent 37 years of his life searching Lock Ness for “Nessie.” In 1970, he used sonar. He did not invent it.

Sonar was invented by Paul Langevin, Constantin Chilowsky, and Robert Boyle in 1916. See Ainslie’s book Principles of Sonar Performance Modelling, published by Springer, 2010, p. 10. Chilowsky and Langevin’s patent was in France, number 502,913. They were not Jewish.

The Hypodermic Needle
Invented by Benjamin A. Rubin in 1961? – No!The hypodermic needle was invented by Christopher Wren in 1656, quite a long time before 1961. He used fine goose quills to inject medication intravenously. Honestly, who thinks there were no syringes before 1961?

The Fax Machine
Invented by Arthur Korn in 1906? – No!Dr. Korn was merely one member of a team of scientists working on a transmission device, but the concept was old even then. The first fax machine was actually invented by a Scottish mechanic and inventor Alexander Bain. In 1843, Alexander Bain was granted a British patent for “improvements in producing and regulating electric currents and improvements in timepieces and in electric printing and signal telegraphs.” Yes, electric printing really is that old.

Some might object, however, that Bain’s work was not a true image facsimile. In that case, go forward to 1861 when Giovanni Caselli patented the pantelegraph, an apparatus specifically for transmission of facsimile, European Patent #2532, US Patent #37,563.

Optical Fibre Data Transmission
Invented by Heinrich Lamm in 1930? – No!It took time just to sort our which Jew was being credited here and for exactly what since the claims all simply say “fiber optics.” Such is the case so very often. The “Jewish invention” lists don’t give a name or a date or even a clear claim; they just throw out a couple of familiar words and assert that the world owes Jews for the whole concept and everything associated with it.

The first glass fiber was produced by Charles Vernon Boys in 1887, though he did not create it for optical transmission. That was instead achieved through larger glass rods by Drs. Roth and Reuss of Vienna for illuminating body cavities. The first person to conceive of optical fiber information transmission was the French scientist Henry Saint-Rene in 1898. The first patent on the idea went to the Scottish engineer John Logie Baird in 1926, British patent #285,738.

The Microphone
Invented by Emile Berliner in 1877? – No!The semitophiles’ attempt to credit Berliner for the carbon microphone, which was the first microphone of decent quality, i.e. that actually worked, is an especially invalid claim as Berliner did not invent it first, and nor did he invent it second, as he got into a patent-priority dispute with Thomas Edison and lost the case. That is, he (a Jew) decided to sue for priority over an invention back when the courts actually weighed evidence instead of political correctness and the court determined that Edison really had beat him to it.

The real first inventor, however, was the Englishman David Edward Hughes (who coined the term “microphone,” incidentally) who originally had no interest in patenting his idea, and demonstrated it in front of many people years earlier. (See “Obituary: David Hughes” in The Electrician, published in London, January 26, 1900, pp. 457-8.)

So neither in terms of patent nor in any chronological sense did a Jew invent the microphone.

Radial Engine
Invented by Emile Berliner in 1908? – No!The first radial engine was invented by Charles Manly in 1901. (See “Charles M. Manly Papers, 1895-1925” in the National Air and Space Museum Archives via SIRIS, Charles M. Manly Papers, 1895-1925 (bulk 1903-1915).)

The Microprocessor
Invented by Stanley Mazor in 1971? – No!Mazor was on the team that created the Intel 4004, but the chief designers of the chip were Frederico Faggin and Ted Hoff, with Faggin doing the silicon design and Hoff handling chip architecture. Many sources, Wikipedia included, do not even mention Mazor as a primary member of the design team in discussing the chip itself, though his name is the third listed on the patent (U.S. Patent #3,821,715).

Cell Phones
Invented by Martin Cooper in 1973? – No!This is another case of all credit to the Jewish team manager. There is a complication, however, in that wireless phones go back to nearly the start of the twentieth century and don’t involve any Jews, not even as managers, at that time.

AT&T offered mobile telephone service as early as 1947, but an operator had to serve as in intermediary. All of this leaves one wondering why anyone would credit someone as late as 1973 for “cellular technology.” In fact, despite frequent Jewish claims that Cooper made the very first mobile phone call in 1973, it was actually made 27 years earlier.

A White man named Douglas Ring proposed in 1947 that the countryside be covered for such calling purposes by a grid of hexagonal “cells” that each centered on a radio tower so that calls could be made anywhere. He and Rae Young (another White man) developed this technology for Bell Labs. Cooper’s team was the first to finish a hand-held cell phone (it was a very close race with many other teams pursuing the same goal), but it used the grid Whites had invented and established long before, and larger cell phones had already existed in cars and large, portable boxes for many years. See “1946: First Mobile Telephone Call” at the AT&T labs Technology Timeline:…/46mobile.html.

Invented by Charles Ginsburg in 1956? – No!Charles Ginsberg was, once again, merely the head of a team of people working at Ampex Corporation to create a more practical videotape recorder. As usual, the Jew tries to take all the credit. in any case, the first video tape recorder was demonstrated in 1951 by Bing Crosby Enterprises. See article “Tape Recording Used by Filmless ‘Camera'” in the New York Times, November 12, 1951, p. 21.

And take the word “practical” in the description of the Ampex machine with a grain of salt: It cost $50,000 at a time when a decent house cost about ten thousand.

Drip Irrigation
Invented by Simcha Blass in 1959? Heavens,– No!Blass was just a businessman who sold drip irrigation systems. Drip irrigation dates so far back into history that it’s not even clear who first used it. It was employed in Ancient India and Ancient China well before the common era, and has been used continuously ever since. Modern drip irrigation began in the 1860’s when British developers attempted to modernize Afghanistan after the first Anglo-Afghan war. With water in short supply, British researchers experimented with unglazed clay-pipe irrigation systems that conserved moisture by dripping it underground at the roots of the plants, and draining away the water that escaped the bottom of the planters through lower pipes. See Megh Goyal’s Sustainable Mircro Irrigation: Principles and Practices, published by CRC Press, 2014, p. xx.

Model Electric Trains
Invented by Joshua Cowan in 1898? No? Cowan founded Lionel. They made a great deal of money selling model trains. He did not invent them. They were invented by Robert Finch and Morton Carlisle in 1894. See the Train Collectors Association page on Carlisle and Finch trains, Carlisle & Finch Trains.

The Pager
Invented by Al Gross in 1949? – No!The first pager system in operation was employed by the Detroit Police Department in 1921 to send alerts to squad cars. Semitophiles don’t think this should count because it was not available to the general public, but neither was Gross’ system. (Double standards abound!) That kind of paging was created by Multitone Electrongics in 1956. See Donnely, Park, et al., “The Decline of Pager Technology,” Dartmouth College,…ner/Pagers.pdf.)

The Walkie-Talkie
Invented by Al Gross in 1941? – No!The Walkie-Talkie was invented by Donald Hings in 1937, Canadian Patent #466,457. Gross in fact heard of Hings’ design and simply decided to make his own version.

Refrigerated Railroad Cars
Invented by Isador Kitsee sometime? – No!As with nearly all Jewish invention claims, virtually no information is supplied by those parrots who spout them. They don’t even know if such a person ever lived, let alone what he did or did not invent and when. Kitsee moved to America in about 1866 and died in 1931. (See Jewish Telegraph Agency obituary records at obituaries | Jewish Telegraphic Agency – Part 367.) Clearly then, since the refrigerated railcar comes from America, he must have done it after 1866. The first refrigerated railcar using mechanical refrigeration, however, did not come into existence until 1947, so the claim cannot refer to that. (See Pacific Fruit Express Company #3000010, a kind of mechanical refrigerated car, described at

The conclusion then is that Kitsee’s “invention” was an ice-car, but the problem is that the first one of those was invented by a man named Wilder in 1851 in Chicago, long before Kitsee arrived in the US. (Schlitz Refrigerated Box Cars or Reefers Plus History Behind)

Kitsee was a prolific “inventor,” by which it is meant that he prolifically patented his own versions of things that other people had already invented. How typically Jewish. His versions were neither groundbreaking nor better, which is why he is virtually unknown except to semitophiles who seize onto the titles of his patents and foolishly assume he must have been the originator in every case. He wasn’t.

Vacuum Tubes
Invented by Irving Langmuir in 1915? – No!The first patent for a vacuum tube was granted to Robert von Lieben in 1906, German Patent #179,807.

Incandescent Lights
Invented by Irving Langmuir in 1916? – No!The first true electric light (despite brevity of operation) was invented by a White man named Humphrey Davy in 1809. See Maxime Gendre’s article “Two centuries of electric light source innovations” (2003) at…ht_history.pdf.

The Blimp
Invented by David Schwartz in 1885? – No!The concept of airships—blimps, specifically—was invented by Jean Baptiste Marie Meusnier in 1783. Anne-Jean Robert and his brother Nicolas-Louis Robert flew such a craft based on Meusnier’s design, which they built along with Jacque Charles, across the English Channel in 1785. All four of these individuals were French, not Jewish. See C. Truesdell’s “Jean-Baptiste-Marie charles meusnier de la place (1754–1793): an historical note” in Meccanica, vol. 31, number 5, 1996, pp 607-610.

Tapered Roller Bearings
Invented by Henry Timkin in 1898? – No!The original tapered roller bearing was invented in 1895 by John Lincoln Scott. It is US Patent #552,008.

The Adding Machine
Invented by Abraham Stern in 1812? – No!Blaise Pascal and Wilhelm Schickard beat him to it by just a tiny bit: Theirs was completed in 1642. Next was the Stepped Reckoner by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in 1694. See Nicole Ketelaars’ article “Pascal’s calculator” in AIMe Magazine, vol. 2, 2001, pp. 3-5, also Robert Soare’s “Computability and recursion” in the Bulletin of Symbolic Logic, vol. 2, no. 03, 1996, pp. 284-321.

The Flexistraw
Invented by Joe Friedman in 1937? – No!This invention is literally too stupid to spend time on, but Jews always bring it up as if we would have no flexible straws without them—heaven forbid! The concept of the flexible, collapsible “drinking tube” goes back at least as far as J. L. Clarke’s 1909 US Patent #942,306. It does not use the same mechanism, but the purpose is the same.

Harold Pye had introduced the plaited form for flexible tubes in general in 1936 (US Patent #2,054,024), along with a method of manufacture and could well have sued Friedman (who was sadly still trying to live off the dying novelty of his stupid straws a decade later). Pye didn’t sue, no doubt in part because he wasn’t a Jew.

Really, the idea that we wouldn’t have bendable soda straws without Jews (or would really care if we didn’t) is laughable.

Invented by Sam Smith in 1971? Patsy O’Connell Sherman, the main credited inventor (US Patent #3,574,791), is not Jewish. Her colleague in fluorochemical research at 3M at the time she made the substance that was to become Scotchgard was a Jew named Sam Smith. Funny how Jews always leave out the main person and tell us Jews were essential to the process and without them we would not have Scotchgard.

Special Relativity
Invented by Albert Einstein in 1905? – No!Henri Poincaré introduced the principle of relativity on September 14th, 1904 at the Congress of Arts and Science associated with the World’s Fair in St. Louis, Missouri. His talk explained that the the laws of physical phenomena must be the same for a stationary observer as for one in uniform motion of translation such that one cannot have any means of discerning whether or not such motion is occurring.

This is the principle of special relativity. There is no escaping the fact that Poincaré had it right, understood it, and expressed it first. (See Henri Poincaré’s “L’état actuel et l’avenir de la physique mathématique” in the Bulletin des sciences mathématiques, vol. 28, no. 2, 1904, pp. 302-324.)

He was probably the biggest name in physics in all the world at that time, had already espoused the idea in many such seminars, and Albert Einstein claimed he had never heard anything about it.

General Relativity
Invented by Albert Einstein in 1915? – No!David Hilbert completed the general theory of relativity at least five days before Einstein. Despite the fact that he should have been well aware of Einstein’s repeated thievery of others’ ideas, Hilbert sent a copy of his work to Einstein, who had been stuck and going in circles, and Einstein immediately copied the equations and submitted them for publication as original work. See Winterberg’s article, “On ‘Belated Decision in the Hilbert-Einstein Priority Dispute,’ published by L. Corry, J. Renn, and J. Stachel” in Zeitschrift für Naturforschung, 59a, 2004, pp. 715-719.

Alternating Current
Invented by Charles Steinmetz in 1893? – No!The first AC generator was produced by French instrument maker Hippolyte Pixii in 1832 based on the designs of Michael Faraday. See, for example, Eichard Parsons’ article “Electrical stimulation of the facial nerve” in The Laryngoscope, vol. 76, no. 3, 1966, pp. 391-406.

The Telephone
Invented by Johann Philipp Reis in 1860? – No!The first electronic telephone was built by the Italian inventor Antonio Santi Giuseppe Meucci in 1857. (See Basilio Catania’s “Antonio Meucci: Telephone Pioneer” in the Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society, volume 21, no. 1 in 2001, pp. 55-76.) It should be noted, however, that both Meucci’s and Reis’ telephones were not very functional, and so really should not count. The first patented telephone of fully functional capacity really was invented by Alexander Graham Bell. Jews ignore this, and simultaneously skip over Meucci’s invention, because Bell and Meucci weren’t Jews.

Mercury Batteries
Invented by Samuel Ruben in 1942? – No!The first mercury battery was created by Charles L. Clarke in 1884, US Patent #298,175.

Gasoline and Gasoline Lamps
Invented by Abraham Schreiner in 1853? – No!What Schreiner used in his kerosene lamp was not gasoline, nor did he invent the lamp, nor petroleum distillation, nor any of the other absurdly unlikely things Jews have tried to credit him for. Petroleum distillation yielding various grades of hydrocarbons including what is now called gasoline, as well as kerosene, was invented by a Canadian geologist named Abraham Gesner in 1846. By 1850, he had started the Kerosene Gaslight Company and it was well established that coal, petroleum, and oil shale could be distilled to yield such useful substances. See Kendall Beaton’s “Dr. Gesner’s kerosene: The start of American oil refining” in Business History Review, vol. 29, no. 01, 1955, pp. 28-53.